Specific learning differences (SPLD) is a general term for learning differences that are neurologically based at present from birth. it affects the way information is learned and processed. Co-occurring differences are very common, in fact having only one difference in SPLD is pretty rare. Under the umbrella of SPLD we have these five conditions. Dyslexia, ADHD, Dyspraxia, and Dyscalculia.
Dyslexia is a type of specific learning difficulty identifiable as a developmental difficulty of language learning and cognition. It is a learning difference that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties info logical awareness, verbal memory, and processing speed.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pattern of behavior present in multiple settings, example school, that can result in performance issues in social, educational, or work settings. It is generally considered to be a chronic neurological disorder that interferes with a person’s capacity to regulate his activity level, inhibit his behaviour and attend to tasks in developmentally appropriate ways. They are characterized by three main difficulties, in attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD and dyslexia can cooccur in 30% of the cases and therefore ADHD is also a contributor to literacy learning differences.
Dyspraxia, also known as developmental coordination disorder, sensory integration dysfunction, motor learning difficulties, and perceptual motor dysfunction. the three components of dyspraxia are ideation, forming the idea and knowing what to do, motor planning, organizing the sequence of movements involved in the task, execution, carrying out the planned movements in a smooth sequence.
Dysgraphia Is a neurological disorder of written expression that impairs writing ability and fine motor skills, or simply put, trouble with writing. The characteristics of Dysgraphia are unclear, irregular, or inconsistent writing, often with different sizes up a lowercase letters mixed up, and they also normally write or copy things slower than normal.
This Dyscalculia, also known as math Dyslexia, is a math learning difficulty that impairs and individuals’ ability to learn number related concepts, perform accurate math calculations, reason and problem solved, and perform other basic math skills. The characteristics are difficulties with counting, basic mental math, and trouble with telling time and direction.
As the learning differences can co-occur at the same time, it is important for the child to be assessed of all conditions, to prescribe the right style of effective teaching.